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基于区块链与K-means算法的智能电表密钥管理方法
翟峰1,2, 杨挺1, 曹永峰2, 李双全3
1.天津大学 智能电网教育部重点实验室,天津 300072;2.中国电力科学研究院有限公司 计量研究所,北京 100192;3.杭州海兴电力科技股份有限公司,浙江 杭州 310011
摘要:
随着电力物联网建设的推进,电力系统高级计量体系逐渐形成了由海量智能电表、边缘计算装置和云端主站构成的“云-边-端”三层架构体系。在此背景下,针对传统集中式智能电表密钥管理机制存在主站依赖度高、密钥存储效率差、响应速度慢的问题,提出一种基于区块链与K-means算法的智能电表分布式密钥管理方法。考虑到传统区块链建链过程中区块节点数量对建链时效性影响较大以及未考虑到节点通信传输资源有限的问题,首先利用K-means算法对智能电表集群按空间位置进行聚类,并提出采用图中央点算法确定边缘计算装置的位置,从而降低区块链规模;然后,提出计及智能电表通信带宽的按需传输机制,以最小化边缘计算装置的负载均衡度为目标规划区块链节点中的传输路径,从而提升传输时效性;最后,基于Hyperledger Fabric平台的智能电表密钥管理算例结果表明,与传统的不考虑节点规模与信道带宽的区块链建链方法相比,当区块链节点数量增大时,所提方法的建链时间增长速率减少了8.18 %以上,而负载均衡度增长速率降低了42.16 %以上;所提智能电表密钥管理方法具有更快的建链速度以及更优的网络性能,因而具备更好的可行性。
关键词:  智能电表  密钥管理  区块链  K-means算法  电力物联网  负载均衡
DOI:10.16081/j.epae.202006019
分类号:TP391;TN918.4;TM933.4
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFE0132100);国家自然科学基金资助项目(61571324);国家电网公司科技项目(1100-201919158A-0-0-00)
Key management method of smart meter based on blockchain and K-means algorithm
ZHAI Feng1,2, YANG Ting1, CAO Yongfeng2, LI Shuangquan3
1.Key Laboratory of Smart Grid of Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China;2.Institute of Metrology, China Electric Power Research Institute, Beijing 100192, China;3.Hexing Electrical Co.,Ltd.,Hangzhou 310011, China
Abstract:
With the development of power internet of things, the advanced metering infrastructure of power systems has gradually formed a “cloud-edge-end” three-tier architecture consisting of many intelligent meters, edge computing devices and cloud master stations. In this context, the traditional centralized smart meter key management mechanism has the problems of high dependence on the master station, poor key storage efficiency and slow response speed. Therefore, a distributed key management method of smart meter is pro-posed based on blockchain and K-means algorithm. Considering that the number of block nodes in the process of building a traditional blockchain has a great impact on the timeliness of building a chain, and the problem of limited communication and transmission resources of nodes is not considered, firstly, the K-means algorithm is used to cluster the smart meters by spatial distribution. The central point algorithm is used to determine the location of edge computing devices, so as to reduce the blockchain size. Then, the on-demand transmission mechanism that takes into account the communication bandwidth of smart meters is proposed. The transmission path in the blockchain node is planned with the goal of minimizing the load balance of edge computing devices, so as to improve the transmission timeliness. Finally, the example results of smart meter key management based on the Hyperledger Fabric platform show that, compared with the traditional blockchain building algorithm without considering the node size and channel bandwidth, when the number of blockchain nodes increases, the chain building time growth rate of the proposed algorithm is reduced by more than 8.18 %,while the load balance growth rate is reduced by more than 42.16 %. The proposed smart meter key management method has faster chain building speed and better network performance, so it has better feasibility.
Key words:  smart meter  key management  blockchain  K-means algorithm  power internet of things  load balance

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