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区块链技术在分布式能源交易中的应用
徐嘉辉, 马立新
上海理工大学 机械工程学院,上海 200093
摘要:
分布式能源就近自主交易已经成为我国配电网的未来发展趋势。但是分布式能源的出力具有不确定性及个体趋利特性,且参与者众多、单笔交易量小、具有高并发性,使得交易过程中的安全性、公平性与实效性成为突出问题。区块链技术以其去中心化、安全透明、不可篡改等特性与分布式能源交易的需求具有极高的契合度。为此,首先分析了基于现有区块链技术的电力市场交易系统的优势与不足,提出了基于有向无环图(DAG)拓扑的公平委托权益证明(F-DPoS)共识机制的区块链技术,改善了DPoS共识机制下的选举舞弊和DAG中的知名节点问题,辅以公平的通证奖励和刷新机制,以经济激励的方式促进市场主体维护系统的安全;然后构建了基于DAG+F-DPoS共识机制的区块链分布式能源交易管理框架,确保在面对高并发、高流量、高可用的实际场景时能够保证高效、快速、安全的交易吞吐。通过算例仿真分析验证了所提方法的可追溯性、高效性与安全性。
关键词:  区块链  有向无环图  公平委托权益证明  共识机制  电力市场  分布式能源交易
DOI:10.16081/j.epae.202008001
分类号:TM73;TK01
基金项目:国家自然科学基金资助项目(61205076)
Application of blockchain technology in distributed energy transaction
XU Jiahui, MA Lixin
College of Mechanical Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093, China
Abstract:
The autonomous transaction of distributed energy nearby has become the future development trend of China’s distribution network. However, the output of distributed energy has the characteristics of uncertainty and individual profitability, and the transaction has many participants, small single transaction volume and high concurrency, which makes the security, fairness and effectiveness of the transaction process become prominent issues. Blockchain technology has the characteristics of decentralization, security, transparency and non-tamper, which is highly compatible with the demands of distributed energy transaction. To this end, firstly, the advantages and disadvantages of the electricity market transaction system based on existing blockchain technology are analyzed, and the blockchain technology of F-DPoS(Fair-Delegated Proof of Stake) consensus mechanism based on the DAG(Directed Acyclic Graph) topology is proposed. The election fraud under the DPoS mechanism and the well-known node issues in DAG are improved. Supplementing by fairness token reward and refresh mechanism, the market entities are promoted to maintain the system security in the way of economic incentives. Then, a blockchain distributed energy transaction management framework based on DAG+F-DPoS consensus mechanism is constructed to ensure efficient, fast and safe transaction throughput in the face of practical scenarios with high concurrency, high flow and high availability. The high traceability, high efficiency and security of the proposed method are verified by case simulation.
Key words:  blockchain  directed acyclic graph  F-DPoS  consensus mechanism  electricity market  distributed energy transaction

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